Today the diagnosis of M.S. It is not the most immediate. The symptoms associated with this pathology, as well as varied they are common to many other diseases. As such, neurology consultation is essential to a thorough review of the medical history, once the diagnosis is based on a set of clinical data and clinical-:
- Clinical data: history of the disease and the results of clinical and neurological research.
- Para-clinical data: MRI results, evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
For a complete diagnostic M.S. neurological examinations are performed, Examination of cranial nerves, The test of reflexes, the test of motor function, the test of gait and balance and test of sensory function.
Techniques for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
- Nuclear magnetic resonance (DLC);
- Lumbar puncture;
- Evoked potentials;
Nuclear magnetic resonance
MRI uses a strong magnetic field that creates images of the brain and spinal cord, showing white matter lesions. This test allows to observe the damaged areas of myelin in patients M.S. without these shows visible clinical symptoms.
Lumbar puncture is a procedure in which a needle is used to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the circulating fluid that bathes the nervous system).
In patients with M.S., this liquid exhibits specific changes that indicate the presence of inflammation.
Although considered an examination a little painful, and there may be some headaches and / or dizziness that disappear after a few hours.
They are a set of neurophysiological examinations of the nervous system that enables the functional evaluation of the nerve pathways of the Central Nervous System and Peripheral.
They evaluate the electrical activity of the brain in response to visual stimuli, Audible or tactile. Each stimulus causes the emission of electrical signals that travel through the nerves and can be picked up by electrodes placed in by the user at specific locations being subsequently amplified and interpreted.
By analyzing these signals yields information on the condition of the nervous pathways which may indicate the presence of nerve injuries.
exist 3 main types of potential studies evoked:
- Visual Evoked Potentials – useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the optic nerve and optic tract, in demyelinating (multiple sclerosis)
- Auditory Evoked Potentials – relevant in the assessment of hearing deficits, It differentiates injuries to the acoustic nerve level or in other locations.
- Somatosensory evoked potentials – assess nerve transmission of impulses in the somatosensory pathways of the upper limbs (pulse) and lower (ankle) to the brain. This exam is mportant for the diagnosis of lesions at the level of nerve roots, spinal cord and brain.